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1.8 Demonstrating authority - Standard, English Studies, EAL/D

Authority in essays

When you write essays, you are translating what you have learned into an argument. An essay is not simply a form through which to tell a marker what you know, but a form to show a marker how you use what you know to answer a question, ie to solve a problem.

Knowing how to do this is not just important for school but is used in the workplace to justify any course of action you are recommending to your employers or to clients. 

A typical essay is structured in the following way:

Annotate one of your own essays applying these categories. How does it rate? Can you rework any section to make your response clearer?

Complete the exercise in student worksheet 1.8.1 Campaign development (Std, ES and EAL/D).

What similarities can you see between an essay structure and campaign development structure, proposing an approach to an advertising campaign? 

Bringing it all together: Rationale for a campaign

You are working in an advertising company and have been given a brief to come up with an approach to a campaign which alerts drivers to dangers of driver fatigue. 
You have closely read: 

  • the crash statistics related to driver fatigue and you decide that the group at greatest risk is males 17-29 years. 
  • the Woolcott research (see below or download as a PDF) on attitudes and behaviours which will also inform your approach to the campaign. 

With your creative team, plan the rationale for a campaign to be presented at a meeting with Transport for NSW using this campaign development plan. 

You will need a PowerPoint presentation and written handouts for attendees to take away for closer reading. Your slides will be made up of lists of key points which you will explain in your presentation.

You can use the template in the student worksheet 1.8.1Campaign development (Std, ES and EAL/D) to plan your presentation handout.

After all the presentations, the class can decide which brief to accept and give reasons for doing so.

Woolcott research (2012) - Attitudes and behaviours

Males 17-29 years

  • This segment is more likely to display negative behaviour (45% vs. 32% of all drivers) with respect to driving fatigued.
  • Although they are less likely to drive on a daily basis (60% vs. 68% all drivers), they are significantly more likely to indicate that a higher proportion of their driving is done at night, with four in ten (40%) saying that more than 20% of their driving was done between the hours of 10pm and 6am (vs. 20% of all drivers).
  • The 17-29 year male segment was generally of the mindset that they are somewhat invincible and therefore capable of ‘pushing on’, even when they do experience signs of fatigue. They were more likely to agree that if they ‘have to be somewhere by a certain time I know I can keep driving on a long trip without stopping (37% vs. 26% of all drivers), 
  • They were also less inclined to prepare themselves by ‘having a good night’s sleep’ (57% vs. 72% of all drivers) before taking a long trip.
  • They are less likely to agree that ‘it is dangerous for the average driver to ignore the early warning signs of driver fatigue’ (67% vs. 90% of all drivers) or that ‘its dangerous for them to ignore the early warning signs’ (66% vs. 88% of all drivers) or that they ‘would be prepared to miss out on something they like in order to get a good night’s sleep’ (55% vs. 74% of all drivers),
  • They are more likely to agree that their ‘driving is not affected by missing a few hours’ sleep the night before’ (34% vs. 22% of all drivers); and that they’d ‘prefer to keep going even if they were tired than stop for a break’ (23% vs. 13% of all drivers).
  • They are of the belief that ‘being tired doesn’t change my ability to drive’ (26% agree vs. 13% of all drivers agree) and ‘driving when I am tired is not really dangerous’ (20% agree vs. 12% of all drivers agree).
  • They were less likely to perceive the situations as dangerous, particularly when it came to ‘beginning a trip after working all day’ (49% considered it dangerous vs. 76% of all drivers), or ‘driving during the daytime when likely to be sleepy’ (40%).  
  • They were also less likely to perceive driver fatigue as a serious road safety issue (45% rated it 9 or 10 out of 10 for seriousness vs. 75% of all drivers).
  • They were also more likely to have experienced boredom’ (49% vs. 35% of all drivers) and ‘blurred vision’ (27% vs. 15% all drivers) and 8% suggested that they would keep driving after falling asleep at the wheel (vs. 2% of all drivers).  They were less likely to stop straight away on experiencing a microsleep/falling asleep at the wheel (74% would stop straight away vs. 86% of all drivers).
  • They were also more likely to claim not to know the warning signs of fatigue (28% claimed not to know vs. 9% of all drivers). They were more likely to keep driving even when tired in order to not ‘waste time’ (30% vs. 17% of all drivers). Young males in particular, suggested that they carry on driving even when tired for fear of being seen to be weak or unable to handle the drive. 

Last update: 23rd January 2019